quarta-feira, novembro 19, 2003
Economia informal nos países da OCDE
OECD countries : In the 21 OECD countries in 1999–2001, Greece and Italy had the largest shadow economies, at 30 percent and 27 percent of GDP, respectively. In the middle group were the Scandinavian countries, and at the lower end were the United States and Austria, at 10 percent of GDP, and Switzerland, at 9 percent. More particularly, the South European countries (Greece, Italy) have an underground economy almost one third as large as the officially measured GNP: followed by Spain, Portugal and Belgium having a shadow economy between 20-24 % (of official) GNP. According
to these estimates, the Scandinavian countries also have a sizeable unofficial economy (between 18-20 % of GNP), which is attributed mainly to the high fiscal burden. The “central” European countries (Ireland, the Netherlands, France, Germany and Great Britain) have a smaller underground economy (between 13-16 % of GNP) probably due to a lower fiscal burden and moderate regulatory restrictions. The lower underground economies are estimated to exist in countries with relatively low public sectors (Japan, the United States and Switzerland), and comparatively high tax morale (United States, Switzerland).
Estes dados são interessantes porque mostram que a evasão fiscal não é um problema exclusivamente nacional. Ocorre em lugares inesperados, como nos países nórdicos. É uma ilusão pensar-se que Portugal vai conseguir acabar com a evasão fiscal através da repressão, da fiscalização ou da educação dos contribuintes.